Obama the Radical

TV Arts

1. One survey says Obama is the most liberal member of the Senate.
2  Favors mandatory national service for college students.
3. Favors income redistribution.
4. Closely involved with Acorn, which has been accused of voter fraud
in several states and has been accused of a major role in the
financial meltdown.
5. When head of CAC gave funds to radical educational groups,
including those run by Bill Ayers.
6. Associate of Bill Ayers who advocates leftist, political
indoctrination in education.
7. Would significantly change America’s policy toward Israel.
(According to Jesse Jackson.)
8.  Received education in Muslim schools.
9.  Sued CitiBank for failure to make risky loans.
In chemistry, radicals (often referred to as free radicals) are atoms, molecules or ions with unpaired electrons on an otherwise open shell configuration. These unpaired electrons are usually highly reactive, so radicals are likely to take part in chemical reactions. Radicals play an important role in combustion, atmospheric chemistry, polymerization, plasma chemistry, biochemistry, and many other chemical processes, including human physiology. For example, superoxide and nitric oxide regulate many biological processes, such as controlling vascular tone. "Radical" and "free radical" are frequently used interchangeably, although a radical may be trapped within a solvent cage or be otherwise bound. The first organic free radical identified was triphenylmethyl radical, by Moses Gomberg in 1900 at the University of Michigan.

Historically, the term radical has also been used for bound parts of the molecule, especially when they remain unchanged in reactions. These are now called functional groups. For example, methyl alcohol was described as consisting of a methyl "radical" and a hydroxyl "radical". Neither are radicals in the modern chemical sense, as they are permanently bound to each other, and have no unpaired, reactive electrons. They can, however, be observed as radicals in mass spectrometry after breaking down the substance with a hail of energetic electrons.

The formation of radicals may involve breaking of covalent bonds homolytically, a process that requires significant amounts of energy. For example, splitting H2 into 2H· has a ΔH° of +435 kJ/mol, and Cl2 into 2Cl· has a ΔH° of +243 kJ/mol. This is known as the homolytic bond dissociation energy, and is usually abbreviated as the symbol DH°. The bond energy between two covalently bonded atoms is affected by the structure of the molecule as a whole, not just the identity of the two atoms, and radicals requiring more energy to form are less stable than those requiring less energy. Homolytic bond cleavage most often happens between two atoms of similar electronegativity. In organic chemistry this is often the O-O bond in peroxide species or O-N bonds.

However, propagation is a very exothermic reaction. Note that most species are electrically neutral although radical ions do exist.

Radicals may also be formed by single electron oxidation or reduction of an atom or molecule. An example is the production of superoxide by the electron transport chain. Early studies of organometallic chemistry, especially tetra-alkyl lead species by F.A. Paneth and K. Hahnfeld in the 1930's supported heterolytic fission of bonds and a radical based mechanism.

In NEVER SAY NEVER AGAIN, Bond's mission was to eliminate all free